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Science Vision Challenge Videos

The following videos were created as a teamwork in the Junios Science Challenge „Science Vision”, organized on February 13-18, 2023.




We have now learned how hydrophobia and hydrophilia are used a lot in science. For example we saw how hydrophobia can affect somebody swimming in physics and we learned what polarity was and why some molecules are polar in chemistry and we also saw how polarity is used to make the cell membrane selective and learned about the hydrogen bond in biology. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules are very important in everyday life and their importance increases the more we learn about them. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules will be very important in the future.


1. Physics: Color of light
We see from experiment 1 and 2, that when we combine a primary color with other primary color, we have a secondary color such as yellow and purple color. When we combine a secondary color with primary color, we get white color, and we have seen that from the third experiment. Finally we’ve discovered if we want to make a secondary color, we must to make one of a primary color concentrated more than other, such as when we want to make a purple color we must to make a blue color the most concentrated.
2. Chemistry: Red cabbage as a pH indicator
Red cabbage is a pH indicator. The reason why is because it contains a chemical called anthocyanin which is sometimes used as a pH indicator. If the substance is acidic, the cabbage turns pink. If it’s basic – green. Since water has a neutral pH, the solution turned blue.
3. Biology: Coloring flowers
Flowers still absorb water despite the loss of roots because a negative pressure is created in the upper part due to water evaporation. However, since stem’s function isn’t water absorption, its effectiveness is lower and it doesn’t meet the needs. When adding salt to water, we create an additional force that acts against the negative pressure force. This, in turn, can reduce absorption or even prevent it.




In this video we explore hydrophobic and hydrophilic effects and their appearances in everyday life. In the first part we get a closer look why plants don’t get wet when it rains. In the experiment we show that plants are hydrophobic and after that with the help of a microscope we find out the biological reasons for that. In the second part we conduct an experiment, which demonstrates the phenomena of surface tension. We are using two bottles, and a straw system to make a “droplet machine”. At the moment of separation surface tension force balances the force of gravity. This concept is used for medical purposes and in some other spheres. In the third part we explore the chemistry of soap. It turns out that soap molecules have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends, which form a “molecular bridge” between the water and the dirty oils on your hands attaching to both the oils and the water and lifting the grime off and away. In the end an experiment is showed to demonstrate the phenomena practically.


We are the Carbon team, shiny and strong as diamonds and useful as graphite, and our mission was to find the strongest ties and linkages in nature and science. Have you ever taken a covid test? We believe you are, and we’ll explain to you how it works. For the physics part, we created an electromagnet – a small version of the type of magnet that can be used in industry to lift really heavy masses. This experiment consists of a small homemade one which can be controlled from a
microcontroller to test its properties. We explored surface tension of water – the second strongest in nature for Chemistry! It’s what lets you overfill a glass of water, make a paper clip float and create “bubbles” on coins. If you enjoyed it, feel free to give us a point. You can watch our video with subtitles here:


Description (does not follow the rules)


Our biology video shows how different light affects photosynthesis in spinach. Spinach leaves were cut into uniform discs and submerged into a baking soda solution, providing CO2 for the leaves. Then, a
rectangular drink bottle allowed different coloured lights to be shone onto the plant, and the subsequent rate of photosynthesis was investigated. Our physics video shows the phenomenon of light dispersion. It is the separation of visible light into its different colours. For the experiment we use a prism, a light and a background. On the background we can clearly see the visible light spectrum proving the existence of a spectrum of wavelengths present in visible light.
The Iodine Clock reaction requires two substances. Substance A which consists of corn Starch, boiling water and hydrogen peroxide. Substance B needs Victim C, which can be taken from Vitim C pills being crushed and extracted by water, Iodine, which causes the Vitim C to become colorless, and lastly water needs to be added into the mixture. Adding equal amounts of substance A and B together, created a
Chemical reaction which causes the colorless mixture to turn blue. The reaction usually takes up to 5 minutes to happen.


In the Physics section of the video, we showed how differences in pressure allow suction cups to hold tight to walls. Because atmospheric pressure has a high value, this allows suction cups to withstand high forces when being pulled away from a wall. In the Biology section of the video, we performed a DNA extraction experiment and explained how DNA is stored tightly in a cell. A double-stranded DNA molecule is wound on histones and after several stages compacted into a chromosome allowing it to be held tightly in a small space. In the Chemistry section, we explained how when flour and water are mixed, water molecules interact with some of the proteins, damaged starch and other ingredients. The consequences are those proteins and starch molecules get attracted by water molecules and because of that mixture of water and flour is sticky, holds tight and is even used for glues.


Physics experiment: soap and oil The oily hand’s water and soap experiment can be explained by various physics principles that showcase intermolecular forces and surface tension. Soap molecules have polar and nonpolar sections that form micelles around oil droplets, reducing the water’s surface tension and allowing the oil to mix with the water and be rinsed away. Chemistry experiment: Homemade lavalamp
When carbonated water and mentos contact, they make gas bubbles, that go up. On their way up, they take some water with them. And because oil is hydrophobic, it doesn’t dissolve in water and vice versa. Because of that, we still can see water bubbles on their way to the bottom of the glass, when the gas went in the air Biology experiment: water and leaf interaction The cuticle is a waxy layer on leaves made of cutin, which reduces water loss by limiting water movement. Cutin is hydrophobic, repelling water and preventing it from passing through the leaf as in the video, but the cuticle has hydrophilic regions that can protect the leaf surface from environmental stressors like UV radiation and pollutants.


Water has surface tension, because the water molecules are attracted to one another. Water can bind to some surfaces. Such surfaces are hydrophilic (like glass) and droplets of water on them are flat, surfaces that are not bound to are hydrophobic (like wax) and the droplets of water on them are round.
Oil and water can be mixed using soap. The soap forms a thin layer around each microscopic droplet of oil. Soap molecules have a hydrophilic end and a hydrophobic end. The hydrophilic end forms the outer layer, allowing the oil to mix with water. This phenomenon is called emulsification.
Phospholipid molecules form the membranes of cells, with their hydrophilic end facing out, and the hydrophobic ends facing in. Some leaves are hydrophobic (if you put water on them it will bead up). Also, birds coat their feathers in an oily substance to keep them dry.


In this video we showed how „Hold it tight” works in nature. The chemistry (chemical bonds creation) and biology (grip strength) were explained in the video. Here is the physics explanation. The experiment shows the effect of two attractive forces, gravity and electrostatic force, on salt and pepper. The electrostatic force attracts pepper more than gravity; therefore, it sticks on the spoon. Meanwhile, salt is heavier, so gravity attracts it more than electrostatic force. That’s why it doesn’t move. (The electrostatic force >>holds pepper tighter<< than gravity and with salt it’s the other way around)


High quality video.
B: When a plant photosynthesises it uses up two substances: CO2 and H2O. CO2 comes from the air and H20, with other compounds, is obtained through roots and transported via the xylem to the leaves and petals. This is known as transpiration. Due to the water in our experiment containing blue ink, petals absorbed it and turned blue.
C: In this experiment, we used copper sulfate fertiliser. It burns green, since the electrons in the copper ions get energy from the fire and emit photons with the wavelength that, to our eyes, looks green. So, the flame looks green.
P: The stove’s flames flicker different colours. When the gas is heated evenly, it emits specific wavelengths of light that look blue. However, since the gas is heated unevenly, some flickers are colder than usual- they emit a different yellow looking wavelength. That’s why yellowish colour flames can be seen on the stove.


Have you ever wondered how a balloon works? In this video, our team explains how chemistry, biology and physics all come together to allow us to have this amazing party
decoration. Thanks to human biology and our grip strength, we can hold the balloon tight in our hands and not let it go. But, it’s because of the gas pressure and chemistry that the balloon holds everything tight and doesn’t explode. We can even find out the maximum pressure that the balloon can handle by using the ideal gas law. And finally, it’s physics that allows us to tie the balloon to a string that can resist the tension. To illustrate our points, we also conduct some experiments! So, hold tight and find out the secrets behind the balloon!

My science experiment is about „hold it tight”.
Required items.
• Two glasses,
• Plastic sheet
• Colored water
• Pure water.
First, we fill one glass with colorless water and the other glass with colored water, and then we place the plastic sheet on the glass that is filled with colored water, and then we reverse the glass and it is observed that the water does not flow, which indicates the atmospheric pressure, and we place the glass completely on top of the other glass filled with pure water, and then we remove for an inch the plastic sheet between the two glasses, and we see that the colored water slowly gets into the pure water, and they entirely become same color. That is, here we see the diffusion process and still the earth’s gravity pulls the water downwards.


Physics: We will adress the question why suction cups stick to the surface and what force is needed to pull it off. We found out that the pull-off force is proportional to the contact area of the cup. It’s the outer air pressure which is higher than the air pressure beneath the suction cup that holds it tight on the surface. Biology: In this segment we talk about cellulose in the plant cell walls, plant cell wall structure, regarding both the old and new concepts, why does wood regain its original form? Experiment by bending the tree branch and seeing what happens when you let go. Chemistry: We will explain how does glue stick to different surfaces, the types of glue and their workings. We will also see how the polymerization phenomenon has a lot to do in this.




By: Manizha Amiri
The effect of heat or the importance of heat: Heat is the amount of energy that is transferred from one object to another as a result of the temperature difference, or in other words, heat is a type of energy that results from the effect of mechanical work and chemical interaction.
In this experiment, I explain the importance of heat in the dissolution of substances. We will see how heat dissolves substances. In this experiment, we will consider some sugar, hot water and cold water. In this experiment, we can see whether sugar dissolves faster in hot water or in cold water. First, we throw an exact amount of sugar in cold water and dissolve it for 10 to 15 seconds, then we throw the same amount of sugar in hot water and in the same period of time we see in which of the waters the sugar dissolves faster.
Heat is not only important in dissolution, but also in all aspects of life. Here, it was found that sugar is not completely dissolved in cold water, while it is completely dissolved in warm water. In this experiment, we proved that the material dissolves faster in the presence of heat. Heat is important in dissolution sections, but it is also needed in changing states of matter, for example solid to liquid, liquid to gas, and so on. Therefore, heat is necessary and important in chemical interactions.